Determination the Count of a Given Cotton Fabric by Beesley Balance

Determination the Count of a Given Cotton Fabric by Beesley Balance

Meftaul Ferdous
Lecturer, Dept. of Textile Engineering
Islami Bank Institute of Technology

Yarn count: The yarn count is a numerical expression which defines its fineness or coarseness. It also expresses weather the yarn is thick or thin. A definition is given by the textile institute – “Count is a number which indicates the mass per unit length or the length per unit mass of yarn.”

To determine the count of the yarn we use five instruments with wrap reel & analytical balance. Beesley balance is one of them. It is working on the principle of fixed weight and fixed length system

Objectives of Experiment:
  • To know about yarn count.
  • To know about template & beesley balance.
  • To know how to determine the count by template & beesley balance.
Required Instrument:
  1. Template
  2. Beesleys Balance
  3. Knife
  4. Marking pen
  5. Needle
Template is a length measuring instrument which contains eight arms. When a sample has short length (Fabric) which we cannot determine by the wrap reel then we use template by using that we can determine the length .
Fig: Beesley balance
The following length is used to determine the count:
  • Cotton : 4.32 Inch
  • ½ cotton :2.16 Inch
  • Linen :1.543 Inch
  • Wool :1.315 Inch
  • Worsted :2.88 Inch
Beesleys Balance:
Beesleys yarn balance consists of a pillar A which carries a cross beam B, fulcrumed at knife edge at the point G. At one end the cross beam is a hook E upon which the yarn to be tested can be placed. The other end of the beam tappers to a point C. When the beam is in balance, the pointer will coincide with the detum line .The pillar is mounted on the base. The whole instrument is leveled by a leveled screw at one end of the base. The cross has a small notch at the point D to take the counter weight or rider

Data Collection:
Sample  No
Amount of yarn
Yarn Count
Average Count


Result: The cotton sample fabric warp yarn count is 30s

  1. Collect sample by appropriate sampling method.
  2. This Sample conditioning at testing atmosphere.
  3. Marked the fabric by using template
  4. Cut that’s fabric by knife according to the marking.
  5. The pointer is set directly opposite to the detum line, with no material and counter weight in their proper places, by adjusting the leveling screw. The counter weight for the particular length which is supplied with the instrument is chosen and suspended at the notch D. (For full cotton the large rider is placed in the notch and for ½ cotton small rider is placed)
  6. Now yarn is withdrawn from sample and placed sample hook until the pointer comes in level with the detum line.
  7. At that stage the threads are taken out and counted which givers directly the cont of yarn teken for testing.
  8. There 30 threads in the sample hook at the balanced condition so the count of the yarn is 30s
  1. We should yarn withdrawn from fabric very carefully.
  2. Marked fabric very carefully.
It is the very easy process but if we cannot use template properly according to yarn type and idle weight than the result will be faulty.

Garment Merchandising Facing Tasks in Recent Times

Garment Merchandising Facing Tasks in Recent Times

Associate Professor (SFDA)
Hindustan University, Chennai
Cell: +91-9283182955

Garment Merchandising is a recognized job profile in Garment industry. Free-standing the clothing industry, many identify this period as well. Garment merchandising is producing a lot of worth to garment customers.

“Merchandising is the professional art of similar goods to the needs and favorites of clienteles to confirm projection off take". In other name merchandising is the marketing commotion answerable for ensuring a product’s popularity, together in qualitative and quantitative.

‘Merchandising’ word is originated from Merchant or Shopkeeper. The duty of the storekeeper is to arrange right products with right price before a consumer decides to buy or identifies about the garment product from promotion or media. If a merchant fails to supply things on time or fails to supply the right packaging, customer will go to other shops and buy the products from opponents, who preserve the desired product in stock.
Garments merchandiser's task
Merchandising is a process or purpose for what to buy and how to buy for sale of the specified products.

Merchandising is a mereportion of marketing process where 4 P's are required to complete the process of marketing. 1.Product, 2.Price, 3.Place / distribution and 4.Promotion

In the above, the term ‘Merchandising’ has been explained in general. In an instant explained about the garment merchandising.

When it comes to explain about garment merchandising, this is to convey the orders by using different marketing outfits, positioning raw materials according to consumer’s specifications, producing goods with quality customary in a definite time with a durable follow up, send out the goods and receiving the payments. After finishing everything, closing the order file and starting the marketing activity again and again. This is Garment Merchandising as an entire aspects.

Professional Qualities of a Merchandiser:
Following are key skill groups, a merchandiser need to obtain to implement his/her tasks positively.
  1. Should have through computer skillset.
  2. Good communication skills written and spoken
  3. Good knowledge in Arithmatic/mathematics
  4. Always be Bold and Active
  5. Knowledge of different fabrics
  6. Acquaintance on Garment production
  7. Knowledge on washing skillset
  8. Knowledge on banking, commercial, shipping .
  9. Essential to have at least a related training etc.
Other important qualities are –
  • Able to gross high mental pressure
  • Must take accountability for task undertaken
Responsibilities of a Merchandiser:
A merchandiser is answerable for the following tasks but not partial to these only.
  1. Marketing
  2. Costing and price quoting
  3. Sample progress and control whole sampling process
  4. Fabric and accessories sourcing and tracking
  5. Factory production scheduling and production tracking
  6. Ordering final inspection
  7. Shipping plan and booking
  8. Customer relationship.
In an export house or garment manufacturing unit, a merchant plays major role in order execution. They need to co-operate with the entire department in a factory. The major departments in factory with whom merchants work closely is shown in the following:

Quick Response Merchandising:
Garment Merchandising is such an occupation where one wishes to be very much energetic all the stage. As this is related with export of the garments to overseas countries, time management is playing the vital role and also very much important. This is one of the scale of efficiency that, how fast merchandisers’ can answer.
  1. Pre-Order & Post-Order merchandising:
  2. Pre-order Contracts (Marketing Portion):
  3. Marketing: Advertising/ Publicity/Promotional work
  4. Receiving Inquiry: Tech pack, Measurement chart and related information
  5. Price Quotation: Consumption, Costing, Pricing
  6. Negotiation: For price fixation
Post order Jobs (Execution part):
Sampling & Approvals: After confirmation of an order merchants need to sampling and take approval on samples, fabric development and trim and accessories.
  • Sampling and approvals
  • Raw material Sourcing,
  • Production Follow up and
  • Post Production Tasks
Are the Major tasks and process flow after sampling have been shown to the buyer.

Merchandising as a Challenging Career:
Around a lot of challenges in merchandising job. Those challenges may come from diverse perspectives. Here are major point to be looked into as career experiments.
  1. Career Perspective
  2. Educational Perspective
  3. Social Perspective
  4. Industrial Perspective
  5. Organizational Perspective
  6. Leadership Perspective
  7. Earning / Economical Perspective
From this point of view, in garment merchandising, a specific needs to take loads of challenges and face much fights to give confinement.Treat like a baby as a garment related to other job silhouettes in the garment industry.

“Time Management ” and “Hard Working”

Are two most important significant merchandising skills that one must have to become a prosperous merchandiser.

In recent scenario is shown that the export of the garment orders from the American buyers are considerably being reduced due to the up liftment of the quota system since 2000, Indian manufacturing exporters are reduced in numbers, due to facing lack of orders and as well as the cut throat competition around the neighborhood countries.

Recently, many garment exporters are turned to manufacture the domestic garments like, men’s shirt, jeans pants, womens gown, inner wear, salwar-kameez, and nighty wear to fulfill the needs of the domestic consumers. But any way merchandisers are still more in demand.

Necessity of Effective Tracking for Effective Merchandising

Effective tracking is necessary for effective Merchandising

Mohammad Nurul Alam
Senior Merchandiser | Asmara BD Pvt. Ltd. | Dhaka | Bangladesh
Cell: +8801930540035,
E-mail: /

When a merchandiser fails to get his job-tracking that means he will be soon in problem. His important task may not be done & later things will be beyond control. I am talking about what basic job a merchandiser needs to do. Yes everyone in this profession knows what is job tracking but the difference is someone can complete it efficiently & others do it because he has to do it. So tracking is the big job can be for a merchandiser whatever it sizes & values.

Let us start with an example from my experience – I call one day one of factory merchandiser & asked him if he knows about the update of resubmission of snap button from YKK. Then replied he needs to check with YKK concern but after couples of hours I got no call from him about the update. Now, my turn to call YKK person & got information that the snap button sent to that merchandiser 5 days ago. So when I informed the merchant what the real picture is then he said, oh I told my assistant to send it for approval but he missed. Yes, he missed but did you not checked with your assistant that he could sent or not? Actually day to day tracking is not possible as I am too busy, he replied.
On duty of garment merchandiser
This is the simple example for a merchandiser that he fails to track his job & it will be surprising if he misses most important task & finally feel unhappy for big disaster. So the 1sttask that a smart merchandiser perform by proper tracking. It can be in many forms. Keeping a diary, excel sheet updating or even by note pad.

The easy way to tracking day to day job:

1. Always keeping to do list.
Every day when a merchandiser starts his job needs to make a list that he important to complete. Then design the task by priority. Most important & urgent task needs to complete then by serial other task. This job list will help the person to remind him what still not done & keep him aware of every responsibility.

2. Separate task by important & urgent matter.
As mentioned above after making the job list most important thing is to divide task in category by important & urgent theory. This will help to stop end moment crisis. We know a merchandiser has to perform hundreds of job a day & the next day add another hundreds. So if every day task is not done by the same day the next day he will be overburdened& in this way a huge job load will blast him. Here the entire job has to segregate by month, week & day.

3. Proper filing.

Filing is another important task for a merchandiser for good tracking but many of them not aware of making this. Paper document need to keep in proper place so that easily any one can get the information. How to make proper filing I have plan to write separate article.

4. Distributing comments to related section.
Passing comments to the related section is the big task for a merchandiser to keep proper tracking. This is important because if comments are not sent to related production unit then things may not be as per asking. Then wrong product will be produced & everyone will suffer.

5. Excel sheet maintain.
For good tracking maintaining excel chart is very important. If anything done for job list then good to keep it in record by dated in an excel sheet. I have plan to write details article on this subject.

6. Time line setting
The job listed in ‘to do list’ must complete by a time frame. Suppose job for trims booking. The time line should have to keep 10 days from order received date. This will help merchandiser to complete his job in a target plan. This timeline, at least save him from rush moment run.

7. Review & rework.
Every day or after one day interval need to check ‘To do list’ that what is still missing from his follow up chart. This will help to do anything though it is late but things will not be totally untouched.

8. Never miss any mail.
To be in track of proper merchandising should have to read & reply mail every day or at least keep the note in diary. This will help to remind the task that not done yet.

9. Putting the phone or verbal communication in written form.
We have several phone call from many person for business related matter but most of the time don’t put the discussion review on mail. If it is not done, then chances to refusal or misinterpreting as well as misunderstanding regarding any discussed matter.

10. Always stay with a note book.
We observe many of the merchandiser don’t keep note book or diary in hand but this will not help him in proper tracking. So a smart merchandiser who wants to keep everything in tracing keeps a diary or note book always with him wherever he goes. This should have to be as his cell phone carrying everywhere. He can write anything, any plan on it &later can review.

In conclusion merchandising is not possible to complete keeping things in mind. Because he has to do hundreds of job in a day & as human behavior naturally may forget. Then not surprising the task if not done.

Concept of ISO 9000, Six Sigma & Lean Production for Apparel Industry

Concept of ISO 9000, Six Sigma & Lean Production for Apparel Industry
Shabuz Biplob,
Apparel Professional,
Cell Phone: +8801511779988

So many methodologies have been created to rule the manufacturing well. Amongst them, ISO 9000, Six Sigma and Lean Production System are very popular in apparel trade. Almost apparel companies are following them anyhow. Some are following one, three, more than three or other methodologies.

ISO 9000
ISO, International Organization for Standardization, develops & publishes international standards. It is founded on 23 February 1947, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The three official languages of the ISO are English, French, and Russian. According to the ISO, its name in different languages has different abbreviations (IOS in English, OIN in French for Organisation internationale de normalisation), the organization adopted ‘ISO’ as its abbreviated name in reference to the Greek word isos which means equal. Now they have members in 163 countries worldwide. They have published over 21000 International Standards covering almost all aspects of technology and manufacturing. ISO 9000 refers to establish, document, implement and maintain a quality management system and continually improve its effectiveness in accordance with the requirements of this International Standard.

The methodology is known as ‘Plan-Do-Check-Act’ (PDCA) can be applied to all processes. PDCA can be briefly described as follows.
  • Plan: Establish the objectives and processes necessary in accordance with customer requirements and the organization's policies. 
  • Do: Implement the processes.
  • Check: Monitor and measure processes and product against policies, objectives and requirements and report the results. 
  • Act: Take actions for continuous improvement.
PDCA Cycle is presented below which is also called PDSA (Plan, Do, Study, Act) Cycle, Deming Cycle, Shewhart Cycle & Control Cycle.
PDCA Cycle
PDCA Cycle
Six Sigma:
Six Sigma is a set of techniques and tools for process improvement. It was introduced by engineer Bill Smith while working at Motorola in 1986. Jack Welch made it famous to his business strategy at General Electric in 1995. To achieve Six Sigma, a process must not produce more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities. That means, we conduct a task one million times, we make mistakes 3.4 times only. It consists of two methodologies named DMAIC and DMADV. The Six Sigma DMAIC process (defines, measure, analyze, improve, control) is an improvement system for existing process. The Six Sigma DMADV process (define, measure, analyze, design, verify) is an improvement system used to develop new process or product at Six Sigma quality levels. This is also called DFSS (design for Six Sigma).

We can briefly explain the methodology DMAIC as follows:
  • Define the goals of the improvement activity.
  • Measure the existing system.
  • Analyze the root cause of the problem.
  • Improve the system.
  • Control the new system.
Seven basic quality management tools for process improvement / Six Sigma are given below:

1. Cause and Effect Diagram (also called Ishikawa Diagram or Fishbone Diagram): It helps to identify many possible causes for a problem and sort out ideas into useful categories. Causes are derived from brainstorming. Causes are designs as follows:

Cause and Effect Diagram
Cause and Effect Diagram
2. Check Sheet: A prepared sheet for collecting and analyzing data.
Check Sheet
3. Control Chart: Graphs used to study how a process changes overtime.
Control Chart
Control Chart
4. Histogram: Graphs used for showing frequency distribution, or how often each different value in a set of date occurs.
5. Pareto Chart: A Pareto chart combines both bars and a line graph. The Pareto principle provides a theory maintaining that 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes. The purpose of the Pareto chart is to highlight the most important among a set of problems.
Pareto Chart
Pareto Chart
6. Scatter Diagram: This is also called Scatter plot, Scatter Graph, Scatter Chart, X-Y graph. A Scatter Diagram shows the relationship between two sets of data. In following Example, each dot shows Defects vs Months.
Scatter Diagram
7. Flow Chart / Run Chart or Stratification: These tools represent a process, workflow or algorithm. The steps are represented by a series of boxes and then connected with arrows. Flow Chart is ideal for communicating a step by step process to others.
Flow Chart
Six Sigma Calculations:
Six Sigma can easily be calculated using a Six Sigma calculator. To figure out Six Sigma, we need define total opportunities, total defects & DPMO (Defects per Million Opportunities).
Sigma calculator.
Sigma calculator
Six Sigma Table / Scale:

Lean Production or Lean Manufacturing is a management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS). The core idea is to maximize customer value while minimizing waste. This is a systematic method for the elimination of waste (Muda) within a manufacturing system. The term was first introduced by John Krafcik, a Quality Engineer in his 1988 article ‘Triumph of the Lean Production System’. Lean Production is therefore focused on getting the right things to the right place at the right time in the right quantity to achieve perfect work flow. Lean Manufacturing tools mainly work to eliminate three types of waste: Muda (valueless work), Mura (unevenness) and Muri (overburden).

Muda is categorized into seven. These are:
  1. Transport : The movement of product between operations and locations.
  2. Inventory: The work in progress (WIP) and stocks of finished goods and raw materials that a company holds.
  3. Motion: The physical movement of a person or machine while conducting an operation.
  4. Waiting: The act of waiting of a machine or a person for something.
  5. Over production: Over producing product beyond customers order.
  6. Over processing: Conducting operations beyond customer requirements.
  7. Defects: Product rejection and rework.
Taking the first letter of each waste, the acronym ‘TIMWOOD’ is formed to remember the 7 Muda well.

Many tools or techniques are used at Lean Manufacturing. Amongst them I would mention 10 useful tools for apparel probationers below.

1. Quality at the Source: In this process, each operator checks his / her own work before the part or product is sent to the next step in the process.

2. Bottle Neck Analysis: Bottleneck literally refers to the top narrow part of a bottle. Bottleneck is a process in the production line which reduces the performance of entire production.

3. Root Cause Analysis (RCA): Root cause analysis (RCA) is a method of problem solving used for identifying the root causes of problems. Cause & Effect Diagram and 5 whys techniques are mostly used for Root Cause Analysis. 5 Whys is the technique to determine the root cause of a problem by repeating the question ‘Why’? Each answer asks to the basis of the next question. To record the countermeasure, we can use a concern strip to ensure that the countermeasure is fully implemented; that the problem is followed up; that the countermeasure works; that the problem doesn’t occur again and that the countermeasure is locked into standard.

4. Standardized Work: This is a documented description of every process (with responsibility, how to do and estimated time). This procedure of manufacturing captures best practices.

5. PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act): An iterative methodology for implementing improvements.
  • Plan: Establish plan and expected results.
  • Do: Implement plan.
  • Check: Verify expected results achieved.
  • Act: Review and assess and do it again.
6. Kaizen (Continuous Improvement): The Japanese word ‘Kaizen’ simply means ‘change for better’. Kaizen aims to eliminate wastes & continuous improvement.  
7. 5s: It eliminates waste that results from a poorly organized work area. See 5s below:
  • Sort: Remove unnecessary items.
  • Set in Order: Organize remaining items.
  • Shine: Clean and inspect work area.
  • Standardize: Write standards for above.
  • Sustain: Regularly apply the standards.
8. Andon: Andon means ‘Signal’. Andon Process starts when a problem happens in production. Andon is faster to solve a problem. This is a visual aid which alerts where action is required. For example, a flashing light in a production line that indicates one of the operators has stopped working due to any problem.

9. Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE): Overall Equipment Effectiveness is a metric for measuring productivity & quality level. There are 3 OEE factors, each of which makes a different type of loss. They are Availability, Performance and Quality. The following calculations are mostly applied to indentify OEE factors percentage.

Availability percentage = run time / planned production time X 100
(Planned production time – stop time = run time).
(Shift time – break time = planned production time)

Performance percentage = (ideal cycle time X total count) / run time X 100
Or, Performance percentage = (total count / ideal run rate) / run time X 100
(Ideal Cycle Time is the fastest cycle time for a process in optimal environment)
(Ideal Run Rate means highest output in per minute)

Quality percentage = good count / total count X 100
(Total count – reject count = good count)

OEE percentage = (good count X ideal cycle time) / planned production time X 100
Or, OEE = availability X performance X quality.

10. Six Big Losses: Six categories of productivity loss are almost experienced in manufacturing process. This is a very effective way to categorize equipment-based losses. These are Breakdowns (unplanned stops), Setup (Changeovers), Small Stops, Reduced Speed (slow cycles), Startup Rejects, Production Rejects. They are aligned with OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) & provide an excellent target for improvement actions.

Another articles of the same author:
  1. Major Formula on Garments for Beginners
  2. Popular Garment Wash in Apparel Trade
  3. Basic Tests of Textile Fabric
  4. Fashions of Print on Fabrics