Impacts of Government Policies in Textile Industries in Sudan

Impacts of Government Policies in Textile Industries in Sudan
Authors: Muna TagElsir, 
Isam Eldin Eldisougy, 
Dr. Ahmed Alhassan


Abstract: 
Elements of the textile industry include manufacturing techniques, agriculture, expert labor, commercial factors and government policies for developing this kind of industry. It’s a transformative industry built on the principle of complementarity between the ministries of agriculture and industry. Sudan, one of the countries that witnessed the collapse of textile in late 90s of last century industry after great beginning at 50s as a direct result of the government policies to reduce the agricultural area of cotton seed in central Sudan and replace it by the cultivation of wheat, which minimized the total quantity of cotton seed and limit the varieties one of the important economic factors, also different irrigation between scheme of wheat and cotton contributed in produce product with low quality specifications which that do not allow to produce the variety products later in the manufacturing process, furthermore the lack of any rehabilitation to old equipment in existing textile plants, which other factor include banning of import of raw materials by government policies and soliciting of international investment.

Many estimated projects done by experts in this sector, approve and shown it’s an excellent investment sector which make a huge profit and employ a huge number of workers and graduate engineers. The government has brought some solutions after failing to reach agreements with farmers and landowners and Cotton company including growing new type of cotton seed (Almohawar), which the scientific research proved that is causing quality problem at the stage of spinning may not allow to complete productivity stages, also no allowed to use its oil or the oil cake, thus losing commercial value in terms of material balance cost. Exempt farmers from debts also did not act as an incentive or motivated reason to cooperate with the government policy. The problem of energy not available on a permanent basis or a significant program still challenge for this industry.

Keywords: Raw materials availability, Energy consumption and savings, Technical feasibility, Political facilities, Industrial chemistry schools 

1. Introduction:
Textile industry is a basic transformative industry by any third world country, which occupies very important place in the international trade. Consumption of the textile fabric of the world will increase with the growth of population, at 1999 there was 6 billion people consumed 50 – 60 million tons fabric [4]. It is forecasted that by 2050 there will be around 11 to 13 billion people and will consume 100 – 120 million tons fabric per year [4]. It also show that the future textile market will have a prosperous prospect.

Human life depend on food and clothes on daily basis, and this has been reflected on all industries and manufacturing materials including the textile industries. In Sudan the successful of this kind of industry based on cotton seed on the first place beside the other chemicals materials (polyester staple, the auxiliary materials such as sizing materials, dyestuff and bleaching chemical materials) to run textile factories, which started on 1950 – 1960 based on very strong project (Algazira project) to cover the local consumption and for export beside many other project establish mainly for textile industries purposes with total design capacities 480 million meters per year [5], when this manufacturing industry made partnerships with the rich agricultural country and have a good location (which represent a link between number of neighboring countries and consumers) like Sudan, a highly rate of profit ( sometimes exceeds 50%) will be accomplished Market demand of Sudan’s textile products (famous product types are pure cotton, polyester -mixed cotton (P 65/C 35) and /or (P 35 / C 65) show there is a broad market demand for textile products in Sudan and its surrounding countries.

Unfortunately, Sudan now imports more than 90 % of its needs of fabric and clothe from outside countries such as China, India, Pakistan and Egypt. This is a direct result of shorting in the raw materials and stoppage of big number of textile factories, furthermore the industrial chemistry schools graduate textile engineer without job opportunities in their filed in Sudan.

This review article explains more about these problems and discusses one of the management aspect (policy) to run or stop textile factories in Sudan.

2. Materials and research review:

2.1 Cottonseed charts
These charts shown below review the totally used materials from this strategic crop, every part has a benefit side and use it to make a business profits

As can be seen this cotton seed has a wide range of applications in industrial sector.

2.2 Textile Industry Flow diagram [6]
Textile manufacturing or production is a very complex process. The range of textile manufacturing is so long. It starts from fiber to finished products. Here is the mostly proper flow chart which explain briefly the processing units of textile industries.

2.3 Capacities of Sudan textile industry

2.3.1 Status and development of Sudan’s textile and costume industry
Generally speaking, Sudan textile clothing industry at the present time has obsolete equipment, lagging technology that produces single variety of products, in addition to ineffective management and poor ability of employees, as a result, the economic benefit of the whole industry is poor, especially from the year 2000 since Sudan allowed its clothing market to importation of textile products to the outside world, almost all the enterprises showed a state of incapability in competition, due to this open import policy by the government the important reason is all the existing textile enterprises stopped production

The following table shows the textile manufacturing Status as of the year 2016 [7]:
Table 3, 1 Textile manufacturing Status in Sudan
It’s very important to note that:
  • The actual quantities around 15.000 ton per year ( an approximately figure)
  • The phrase (working factories) not necessary means textile factory contain all processing units sometimes means just one unit was running
  • The completely stopped factories 45.9% can increase to 73% if the temporary stopped factories continue their status.
3. Points of discussion
Points of discussion of this paper focus on three main affected points:

3.1 Availability of Raw Materials in Sudan
3.1.1 Reduction of the agriculture areas for cottonseed which is replaced by wheat crop

Clearly this reduction has resulted in the cotton seed quantity which reduce the to more than half %; in addition there is no existence of alternatives raw materials imported to Sudan – according to the industry ministry decision –

3.1.2 Wrong way of irrigation led to harvest cotton seed crop with very bad quality which didn’t match with the existing textile machines

The problem of irrigation is that is the wheat crop that cultivated beside cotton seed need different conditions of irrigation (temperature, moisture...) resulting in the emergence of (Alassala) disease which lower the quality of cotton and led to problems in the hardware used into production equipment especially spinning machines. Also no caring about the crop classification during harvest process which account as a one of the quality problems

3.1.3 Government can’t find compromise ways with farmers to allow the true investment methods.

The policy of Cotton Company and farmers/ landowners to cooperate and manage this kind of input with Sudan government not clear, and the outcome is not satisfactory to the all parties which affect into agricultural production of cotton.

3.2 Energy consumption and cost in textile industries

3.2.1 Energy Problem
Energy is used in water supply and drainage, air conditioner and de-dusting, lightening, chilling, air compressor and boiler, electrics. Energy consumption approximately; Water demand 75 m3 per hr., total power consumption 20 million kw, environment production, a sewage treatment station (waste water 100 m3 per day), to produce one million meter fabric [6], this highly demand and consumption of power need stable provision of electricity ability without un-programmed cutoff power

3.2.2 Energy Savings:
To save energy we need to reduce consumption, improve utilization ratio of energy to obtain better economic benefits, when new type of high speed technological equipment for example: selected some of the are electromechanical integrative equipment of international advanced level with higher running efficiency, which under scientific management, adjustment, matching and utilization, characteristic of high efficiency and energy savings for the equipment will shows sufficiently, for example de- dusting system in workshop adopts new type de- dusting equipment with small wind resistance, high efficiency and low power consumption. Energy saving is notable that 24% of electrical energy can be saved. Also to save electrical energy consumption, light source with low capacitance and high luminous flux and green illuminating lamps will be selected 

3.2.3 Energy Management
In Sudan a word factory does not necessarily mean the whole plant that contains all units of textile production; may it be a unit for spinning and weaving, beside all factories located in Sudan currently as either scrap or their owners change the original purpose, so when start discussing the subject of energy management which require to consider the old running technology lead to problem of high energy consumption rates between 65% consuming by cooling and lighting and 25% by operating machines, especially since most of them are not working under self- power generation system (turbine), also the insufficient equipment which suffering when try to increase speeds to improve productivity. Under these circumstances it is so difficult to have some energy management policies to make development

3.3 Government aid (funding) to Textile Industry

3.3.1Cooperate between ministry of Agriculture and ministry of Industry
Leading integrative process between the Agricultural and industrial ministries and with the consumer for developing and encouraging the local industry. Some of the positives of the current period is the new experiment to cultivate new type of cotton seed (Almohawar) as an alternative, but unfortunately the results of this miscommunication between the two ministries is lead to produce cotton seed not suitable for spinning stage and has a low quality specifications, beside the loss of seeds oil and oil cake commercially.

3.3.2 Rehabilatation and Job Opportunities
In the year 1970 old factories started production up to 480 million meters per year by 12 meters per capita of different types of fabrics and increase productivity for export with thousands of workers and engineers, now the opposite is happening: majority of stoppage, no job opportunities and all budgets for rehabilitation went to other projects.

3.3.3 International Investment
Chinese and Turkish mostly seeking to invest in this sector by offering Ministries of Industry and Finance new textile projects either construction or rehabilitation projects, but they ignored these investors, while the government focused on different other sectors rather than textile industry, also its very important to mention the government policies. Regarding customs and tax policies of the inputs, fees for inputs and DEVELOPMENT tax are complicating and making it difficult to build new textile factories.

4. Recommendations
The following table represents the major problems and their recommendation for surviving the problem in a summary way:


Problem
Recommendations
- Cultivation area of wheat
-Use the cultivation lands for wheat in northern Sudan
- Outdated technology and a lack of long-term funding
-Updated technologies and rehabilitation of existing plants and expanding the total capacities to provide long-term capital funding
-Lack of production inputs seasonally, leading to lack of availability of raw materials just on time
- Seasonal stoppages increase waste in the production capacities
-Insecure situation of textile. s employee in times of stopping
-No constant income
-Re-establish the cooperation between the agricultural sector and the industrial sector
-Competition from imported goods
-Reduce the cost of production by processes optimization
- Cancel tax and customs fees also for the individual Sudanese states
-Improve the product quality and add new and different production lines for new products
-Install Textiles and ready-made clothing fairs (Made in Sudan)
-Higher energy costs and unorganized electricity supply
-Give priority to grant electricity supply to the industrial sector during power cutout
-The lack of a clear policy to provide the required raw material for production
-Develop the Facilitation of policy procedures

5. Conclusions 
Serious great changes into polices are the basic to reach the textile industry target following goals and achieve the self-sufficiency 100% of fabric and readymade and for export, provide jobs opportunities for thousands worker, infrastructure rehabilitation for basic units of textile factories (fresh water supply, sewage water and electricity supply), starting and caring for assistance services (health environment, safety and security and medical services). Reducing the prices of energy materials (furnace, gasoline and electricity)

Open the door for investment and import new modern machines Above all provide inputs all year and succeed to reduce the waste.

Reference
  1. Muna Tag Elsir M.Khair, PhD researcher in chemical engineering
  2. Isam Eldin Eldisougy, Msc Mechanical Engineering Design UK 1975, General Manager at: Sudan Textile Industry, Nile Power Battery Factory (Eveready), Saria Industries, Pasgianos Food & Beverage Company, Consultant & Board of Director at: Nile Corporation Textile (DAEWOO), Haggar Holding Company, Ministry of Industry since 1999 up to now .
  3. Ahmed Elzain Elhassan, Ph.D in Chemical Engineering Texas A&M University 1991, Associate Professor, Chemical Engineering Department U of S&T 2012-present
  4. Economic and technical feasibility study report, Hebei Textile architectural Design Institute, 2006
  5. The production capacities of the textile industries in Sudan (designed, available, actual), ministry of industry survey study, 2016
  6. http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2012/02/textile-manufacturing-process-process.html
  7. Industry is the future of Sudan, ministry of industry published magazine, 2016 

Innovation in Spinning Technologies for Denim Wear

Innovation in Spinning Technologies for Denim Wear 
Amirsuhel Aslam Desai Danwade
D.K.T.E’s Textile and Engineering Institute, 
Ichalkaranji, India
Email: amirdesai78@gmail.com 
 
 

Introduction:-
The word denim was coined from the ancient city of France called serge de Nemis. Denim is a sturdy fabric usually made up from 3/1 twill with indigo dyed warp faced and white filling yarns in the weft of coarser counts. It uses a sturdy twill weave with diagonal ribbing having a high fabric gsm. But the ancient denim now is competed by a fabric known as jeans which has same properties as denim but used with various blends. The production of this fabric has been on an ever increasing demand since then.As far as manufacturing process of denim is considered, it is similar to that of grey fabric up to the process of weaving with only difference that in case of denim fabric, it is dyed at the stage of sizing where as in case of grey fabric, the decision regarding dyeing stage depends upon the finished product.

Objects of denim:-
Traditionally denim was developed as an industrial fabric. The object behind the development of denim was because of its property of durability and better serviceability. But sooner this fabric was accepted by the masses and was used by kids, women and the youth for regular apparel purposes.

Types of denim:-
While the original denim was 100% cotton serge material. But now we get denims in numerous varieties materials and features. There are five major varieties of denim:-

1. Dry Denim - This type of denim is given a dry and rough appearance and not washed after being dyed.
Dry Denim
2. Selvage Denim–This type of denim forms a clean natural edge that does not unravel resembling a selvedge.
Selvage Denim
Selvage Denim
3. Stretch Denim–This type of denim consists of stretch properties due to presence of elastic yarns.
Stretch Denim
Stretch Denim
4. Poly Denim–This denim has look alikes of a denim but are preferably polyester blends.
Poly Denim
Poly Denim
5. Ramie Cotton Denim–In this use of ramie fibre to reduce wrinkles and enhance silky lusture.
Ramie Cotton Denim
Ramie Cotton Denim
Today’s Scenario on Denim:-
Since the introduction of denim in India in 1986, the industry has evolved continuously, witnessing a healthy positive growth for the past decade. India is the most competitively positioned country in the world for denim manufacturing and exports. Innovation has brought a constant change in the Indian denim industry. Stretch denims have proved to be an important innovation in the Indian denim market. Production of various blends has helped in the growing popularity of denim amongst kids and women driving the domestic market. The government’s anticipatory project of – Make in India is working as a growth catalyst. Biotechnology is changing the production of denim fabric as now focus of the present market is “ Sustainable Denim”.

Basis for Selection of Denim wear:- 
 
Fibre properties :- Mostly medium and short length staple fibres of cotton and synthetic are used such as Lycra, polyester, etc.These fibres are preferably used because of their high strength and durable properties.

Yarn properties :- Room for coarser yarns having low twist.Less hairiness and good abrasion resistance.Soft to feel and good absorption to dyes. Impart fancy effect, slub yarn and multi count yarn is used.

Fabric properties:- Made of different twill weaves with high fabric gsm. Use of different blends as elastomers for stretch and other softer blends as rayon, modal for comfort and fit. Use of high luster yarns for better aesthetic properties.

Spinning Technologies Used for Denim Wear:-
There are various spinning technologies used for the production of denim such as Ring spinning, Open end spinning, Twillo spinning, Friction spinning, etc. Of the above mentioned only ring spinning and open-end spinning are commercially used for the production of denim yarns.

Ring Spinning :- The yarn produced on ring spinning has high strength due to existence of high twist.But there is a limited production due to coarse count.The yarn has properties such as high hairiness, less stiffness.
Ring Spinning
Ring Spinning
Open end Spinning: - The yarn produced on open- end or rotor spinning has low strength due to low twist. High production rate and used for production of coarse counts. The yarn properties are better abrasion resistance, high stiffness and resistance to snarling.
Open end Spinning
Open end Spinning
Innovations in Spinning Technologies used:-

Ring Spinning:- Automation in doffing, shifting of top delivery roller for reduction of spinning triangle, roving stop motion, individual spindle monitoring system, centralized suction and waste collection system.
Ring Spinning
Ring Spinning
Open end Spinning:- Automatic take- up of sliver, auto cleaning of rotors, auto doffing, auto sliver piecing, auto can transfer from drawframe. Special attachments such as Amsler control are used to give unique effect.
Open end Spinning
Open end Spinning
Comparison of Spinning technologies:-
Recent Developments for Denim wear:-
Major focus areas of innovation and development are comfort, performance and environment friendliness. Use of special attachments on ring and rotor machines such as Amsler control to impart unique effects to the yarn. Use of multi-component in place of bi-component filament yarn is one such concept in the production of stretch denim yarns. Use of plied yarns on TFO to make denims. Use of slub yarns and multi-count yarns to impart fancy effects. Use of newly developed biochemical and cellulosic fibres such as Cupro, Modal, Promodal, Rayon and Tancel for softer blends of denim. Use of core spun with outstanding abrasion resistance and elasticity and etc. Blends of Bamboo and Hemp are under considerate experimentation for high end use denims. Use of engineered yarns has also found its way in the market because of the competition.

Conclusion:-
Denim is one of few things that has undergone a backward integration – as this fabric was developed for the lower working class, but with passage of time this fabric saw a lot of improvement and was accepted by the higher classes. Denim wear from an industrial fabric has made its way from work wear to be used in every type of garment and became a Fabric for all. It has become a sign of freedom and fashion for youth so there is going to be an ever increasing demand of denim. One of the major challenges of ring spinning is the existence of hairy yarn structure. Compact spinning provides reduced yarn hairiness, higher tenacity and improved yarn evenness. Rotor spinning were previously used only as the weft but now are used as denim warps too.By all these, we have been able to increase the production rate, enhance the varieties and quality range which has made denim – a fabric for all.

References:-
  1. Denim – A fabric for all By – Parmar Satsangi Prakash
  2. Denim – Manufacture, Finishing and Processing By – Roshan Paul
  3. Fibre2fashion magazines
  4. www.fibre2fashion.com
  5. A Practical guide to Ring Spinning By – W. Klein
  6. Spinning Manual of Rieter 
 

Scope of Seam Engineering to Increase the Seam Strength by Controlling Different Parameters (Part-3)

Scope of Seam Engineering to Increase the Seam Strength by Controlling Different Parameters (Part-3)
Authors: MD. Momenur Rahman,
Kazi Mustafijur Rahman,
Rabeya Siddiqua

Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology
Dhaka, Bangladesh


Previous Part

 
Result Overview
  • From the experimental work, it’s concluded that the usage of thicker threads did not always give better strength and the seam appearance was also poor. 
  • A combination of finer thread with moderate strength and a medium level of stitch density according to fabric weight category provided an effective result for both seam appearance and strength. 
  • Sewing Thread Size/Ticket Number, GSM, SPI &SPM is the main considerable point of the thesis. Change in those parameters seam strength is changed. 
  • The use of low and medium stitch density gave better results in terms of seam strength. 
  • In the prediction, thread tensile strength, extensibility and size were selected in most of the equations. 
  • Thread properties play an important role in determining the quality of seam. 
  • The equations have not been tested with other types of sewing threads since threads used for this study are commonly used in the apparel industry. 
  • Other types of stitches and seams could be used to sew the fabrics and analysis on their seam performance could be done. 
  • For this research, only single stitching was used; another possible research area is to use double stitching.
Effect of sewing thread on seam strength
There are various parameters of sewing thread including its fiber type, construction, finish, size, ply & TPI, which affect the seam quality.

These parameters will be discuss following :
  • Thread Fiber Type (seam strength highest for 100% spun polyester, average for cotton/polyester blend & lowest for 100% cotton).
  • Thread Construction (seam strength highest for core spun yarn; 100% synthetic fiber shows more seam strength).
  • Thread Finish (mercerized threads shows more seam strength than any soft cotton threads of the same fiber type and size ).
  • Thread Ply (the more the thread ply, the more the seam strength is)
  • TPI (the more the TPI, the more the seam strength is).
Effect of Thread size (Ticket Number) on seam strength

Graphical Expression
Data table
  • The numerical expression of sewing thread fineness or coarseness is “Ticket number”. It is equal to three times the metric count of the thread.
  • The more the ticket number, the high the seam strength is.
Effect of fabric properties on seam strength
Various fabric properties like Cover factor, GSM, Thickness, Strength, Extensibility etc.

In the following sections these fabric properties are discussed in brief:
  • Cover Factor (the more the cover factor, the less the seam strength is, the less the cover factor, the more the seam strength is).
  • Fabric Weight(light fabric shows less seam strength than heavy fabrics).
  • Fabric Thickness (the more the fabric thickness, the more the seam)
  • Strength is & less seam efficiency)
  • Fabric Strength (the more the fabric strength, the more the seam strength is & less seam efficiency)
  • Fabric extensibility (the more the fabric extensibility, the more the seam strength is & less seam efficiency).
Effect of GSM on seam strength

Graphical Expression 
Data table
  • GSM means “Gram Per Square Meter”.
  • It is the weight of fabric in gram per one square meter.
  • By this we can compare the fabrics in unit area which is heavier and which is lighter.
  • In a certain point, when GSM increases seam strength increase & over the time seam strength decreases though GSM increase.
Effect of Stitch Density (SPI) on seam strength

Graphical Expression
Data table
  • Stitch density is specified as the number of stitches per inch (SPI).
  • Higher stitches per inch (SPI) means short stitches; and lower SPI means long stitches.
  • The greater the SPI in a seam, the greater the seam strength is & the lower the SPI in a seam, the lower the seam strength is.
Effect of stitch per minute (SPM) on seam strength
Graphical Expression
Data table
  • Modern sewing machine speed can reach up to 5,500 stitches a minute.
  • The fact is that, in a high speed sewing machine the movement of the sewing needle is higher that generates heat.
  • This creates seam damage problem that causes of poor seam efficiency and appearance in a garment.
Effect of other factors on seam strength

Human Factor:
  • If the operator is lacking in skill, seam problems will be generated during sewing.
  • Excessive or improper handling and positioning of the fabric parts during sewing lead to seam puckering.
  • If the operator is unable to handle the sewing machine properly, there is a chance of seam damage due to frequent needle breakage.
Environmental Factor:
  • All environmental problems reduce the concentration and skill of the operator to work.
  • Due to poor concentration and reduction of the skill, the operator cannot properly handle the garment parts during stitching.
  • High humidity and temperature also reduced the strength of sewing thread during sewing that produce poor seam strength.
Recommendations
  • For the analysis of the seam strength, transverse loading was used for this study where the loading was across the seam and the effect of thread strength was analyzed. For future work, the seam strength test could also be done on longitudinal loading where the load is parallel to the seam. 
  • The performance of seam can also be widened for weft and bias directions of sewing for both seam appearance and strength analysis. For the current study, only the warp direction of sewn fabrics was analyzed since this is the most common practice in the industry. 
  • ü Other types of stitches and seams could be used to sew the fabrics and analysis on their seam performance could be done. For this research, only single stitching was used; another possible research area is to use double stitching. 
1     2     3 
 

Comprehensive Study of Textile from Fiber to Fashion

INTRODUCTION 
Fiber to fashion emphasizes a relationship between small fibers to the great fashion. It’s means that the apparels we all prefer in our day to day life are just from a small fiber. We get the fiber from different sources natural; animals and artificial fibers (man-made). The fibers are first extracted from its sources and then send to the processing or for the further processes. The fiber is first sent to the spinning department for yarns, then to the weaving department, to the chemical processing department, garment manufacturers, designers, producers and then at last buyer.

LIFE CYCLE OF TEXTILE PRODUCT -

FIBER – is the smallest unit of any textile material whose length is thousands and thousands time longer than its cross section. The fibers are classified into different groups as mentioned below:

EXTRACTION OF FIBERS – The fibers are different sources. The natural fibers like cotton is extracted from the seed cotton by ginning process, flax (linen) / jute by retting process from the bark of the jute or the flax plant, wool is extracted by shearing process from the sheep’s body, silk is extracted by reeling process by boiling the cocoons and then degumming it and the man-made are extracted by three spinning processes: Melt, Dry and Wet spinning.

As this extraction processes are quite time taking many new technologies are introduced such as the technology developed by CSIR-NIIST involves an anaerobic (oxygen-less) process mediated through microbial action for the banana fiber.

SPINNING - The process, by which the fibers are converted into yarns, is termed as Spinning. The process of spinning is: Blow room line – the bales are opened mixed and blended, Carding – heart of spinning, the fibers (lap) is cleaned, Draw frame – the sliver is converted into thick yarns, Speed Frame – the thick yarns slightly twisted then slightly thinner yarns are produced, Ring Frame – produces perfect yarns and also enhances the quality of the yarn. By the above mentioned process the fiber is converted into yarns.

WEAVING - is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. The longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft. Before weaving, sizing process is done in which a size paste is applied on in order to improve the strength and the abrasion resistance of the warp threads. The weaving is done in a loom. The types of weaves are mentioned below:

KNITTING - is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or fabric and creates multiple loops of yarn, called stitches, in a line or tube.

CHEMICAL PROCESSING – is to remove the impurities from the fabric and including pretreatment, dyeing, printing, finishing. It is classified into two groups: dry chemical processing and wet chemical processing. The dry processing includes: grey inspection, stitching or sewing and singeing and the wet processing includes: desizing, scouring, bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing, printing and finishing.

In the Grey fabric inspection section - the fabric is inspected whether it have any defects or is it fit for the further process, then Stitching or Sewing - is done for cleaning the fabric and for repairing the major and minor defects in it, Singeing – removing the small protruding fibers on the fabric surface, Desizing – removal of size paste from the warp threads and allow the water to penetrate in, Scouring – removal of fatty acids,oils,waxes and other impurities i.e. pectin materials, Bleaching - whitens the fabric and put out of sight the yellow tints, Mercerizing - is the treatment of fabric with concentrated caustic soda under fabric tension. The objective is to achieve a high degree of mercerization thereby improving: luster, dye uptake, tensile strength, Dyeing - is the process of adding color to textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics which is retained by the fabric completely, Printing - is the process of applying color to fabric in definite patterns or colors are applied to it in certain parts only, and in sharply defined patterns and Finishing - is a process used in manufacturing of fiber, fabric, or clothing.

APPAREL/ FASHION DESIGN - Apparel designers, also called clothing or fashion designers, conceptualize and create items of clothing. They often specialize in one type of design, such as casual, evening or active wear. Common duties include tracking current fashion trends and predicting future ones, sketching new designs, selecting patterns and fabrics to use in garments and overseeing production. They may then show items to creative directors, clients or retailers, depending on if the garments are to be custom designed or mass produced.

Fashion designers are mostly employed by wholesale or manufacturing outlets, where garments are typically created for mass production; designers can also work for apparel companies, retailers, design firms and theater companies. In these settings, they tend to work as full- or part-time members within a team. At times, long hours are needed to reach deadlines. A number of apparel designers are self employed; they often create custom clothing and may work unusual hours to meet clients' needs. Fashion designers frequently travel to visit manufacturers, attend trade or fashion shows and gain artistic inspiration.

MARKET - The Textile industry in India traditionally, after agriculture, is the only industry that has generated huge employment for both skilled and unskilled labor in textiles. The textile industry continues to be the second largest employment generating sector in India. It offers direct employment to over 35 million in the country. The share of textiles in total exports was 11.04% during April–July 2010, as per the Ministry of Textiles. During 2009-2010, Indian textiles industry was pegged at US$55 billion, 64% of which services domestic demand. In 2010, there were 2,500 textile weaving factories and 4,135 textile finishing factories in all of India. According to AT Kearney’s ‘Retail Apparel Index’, India is ranked as the fourth most promising market for apparel retailers in 2009.

India is first in global jute production and shares 63% of global textile and garment market. India is 2nd in global textile manufacturing and also 2nd in silk and cotton production. 100% FDI is allowed via automatic route in textile sector. Rieter, Trutzschler, Soktas, Zambiati, Bilsar, Monti, CMT, E-land, Nissinbo, Marks & Spencer, Zara, Promod, Benetton, Levi’s are the some of foreign textile companies invested or working in India.

India is the second largest producer of fiber in the world and the major fiber produced is cotton. Other fibers produced in India include silk, jute, wool, and man-made fibers. 60% of the Indian textile Industry is cotton based. The strong domestic demand and the revival of the Economic markets by 2009 have led to huge growth of the Indian textile industry. In December 2010, the domestic cotton price was up by 50% as compared to the December 2009 prices. The causes behind high cotton price are due to the floods in Pakistan and China. India projected a high production of textile (325 lakh bales for 2010 -11). There has been increase in India's share of global textile trading to seven percent in five years. The rising prices are the major concern of the domestic producers of the country.
  • Man Made Fibers: These include manufacturing of clothes using fiber or filament synthetic yarns. It is produced in the large power loom factories. They account for the largest sector of the textile production in India. This sector has a share of 62% of the India's total production and provides employment to about 4.8 million people. 
  • The Cotton Sector: It is the second most developed sector in the Indian Textile industries. It provides employment to huge amount of people but its productions and employment is seasonal depending upon the seasonal nature of the production. 
  • The Handloom Sector: It is well developed and is mainly dependent on the SHGs for their funds. Its market share is 13% of the total cloth produced in India. 
  • The Woolen Sector: India is the 7th largest producer of the wool in the world. India also produces 1.8% of the world's total wool. 
  • The Jute Sector: The jute or the golden fiber in India is mainly produced in the Eastern states of India like Assam and West Bengal. India is the largest producer of jute in the world. 
  • The Sericulture and Silk Sector: India is the 2nd largest producer of silk in the world. India produces 18% of the world's total silk. Mulberry, Eri, Tasar, and Muga are the main types of silk produced in the country. It is a labor-intensive sector.
TRENDS - Fashion forecasting is a global career that focuses on upcoming trends. A fashion forecaster predicts the colors, fabrics, textures, materials, prints, graphics, beauty/grooming, accessories, footwear, street style, and other styles that will be presented on the runway and in the stores for the upcoming seasons. The concept applies to not one, but all levels of the fashion industry including haute couture, ready-to-wear, mass market, and street wear. Trend forecasting is an overall process that focuses on other industries such as automobiles, medicine, food and beverages, literature, and home furnishings. Fashion forecasters are responsible for attracting consumers and helping retail businesses and designers sell their brands. Today, fashion industry workers rely on the Internet to retrieve information on new looks, hot colors, celebrity wardrobes, and designer collections.

SCOPE AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR FASHION DESIGN - There are a number of specialized art schools and design schools worldwide that offer degrees in fashion design and fashion design technology. Some colleges also offer Masters of Fashion courses.

Design schools include:


Argentina
  • School of Architecture, Design and Urbanism, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires
  • University of Palermo, Buenos Aires
Australia
  • Sydney Institute of TAFE
Bangladesh
  • Bangladesh University of Textiles (BUTex), Dhaka
  • Shanto-Mariam University of Creative Technology, Dhaka
  • BGMEA Institute of Fashion & Technology (BUFT), Dhaka
Belgium
  • La Cambre
  • Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Antwerp)
Canada
  • George Brown College
  • Toronto Film School
China
  • Hong Kong
  • Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Denmark
  • Copenhagen Academy
France
  • IFM Paris (Institut Français de la Mode)
  • IFA Paris
  • Ecole de la Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne
  • ESMOD
  • Studio Berçot
Georgia
  • Tbilisi State Academy of Arts
Germany
  • AMD Academy of Fashion and Design
  • Berlin University of the Arts
  • HTW Berlin
  • University of the Arts Bremen
  • Kunstakademie Düsseldorf
  • Giebichenstein Castle Academy of Arts in Halle
  • Academy of Fine Arts, Karlsruhe
  • Academy of Fine Arts, Munich
  • Academy of Fine Arts, Nuremberg
  • Design Hochschule Schwerin & Leipzig
Ireland
  • Limerick School of Art and Design
  • National College of Art and Design
India
  • National Institute of Fashion Technology
  • Amity University
  • Pearl Academy of Fashion
  • Apeejay Institute of Design
  • Raffles Design International, Mumbai
Italy
  • Istituto Marangoni
  • Politecnico of Milan
  • Istituto Europeo di Design
  • University Iuav of Venice
Israel
  • Shenkar College of Engineering and Design
Japan
  • Bunka Fashion College
  • Sugino Fashion College
Pakistan
  • Pakistan Institute of Fashion and Design
Romania
  • Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iași
  • George Enescu University of Arts of Iași
  • Art and Design University of Cluj-Napoca
  • West University of Timișoara - Faculty of Fine Arts and Design
  • Turkey
  • IFA Paris
  • Izmir University of Economics
England
  • Central Saint Martin’s College of Art and Design
  • Condé Nast College of Fashion & Design
  • Royal College of Art
  • Kingston University
  • London College of Fashion
  • University of Westminster
  • Ravensbourne College of Design and Communication
  • University of Brighton
  • De Montfort University
  • Richmond University
  • Bradford College
  • University for the Creative Arts (Rochester & Epsom)
Scotland
  • Heriot-Watt School of Textiles and Design, Edinburgh
  • The Glasgow School of Art
  • Edinburgh College of Art
United States
  • Parsons The New School for Design in New York City, New York
  • Fashion Institute of Technology in New York City, New York
  • Savannah College of Art and Design in Savannah, Georgia
  • Drexel University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • Pratt Institute in New York City, New York
  • Rhode Island School of Design in Providence, Rhode Island
  • Kent State University in Kent, Ohio
  • Otis College of Art & Design in Los Angeles, California
  • California College of the Arts in San Francisco, California
  • Philadelphia University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • Academy of Art University in San Francisco, California
  • Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising in Los Angeles, California
  • School of the Art Institute of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois
  • Columbus College of Art and Design in Columbus, Ohio
  • Columbia College Chicago in Chicago, Illinois
  • El Centro College in Dallas, Texas
  • Middle Tennessee State University in Murfreesboro, Tennessee
  • O'More College of Design in Franklin, Tennessee
  • Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia
  • Woodbury University in Burbank, California
  • Lasell College in Newton, Massachusetts
Elsewhere in the world, Shih Chien University and Fu Jen Catholic University in Taiwan and the Asian University chain, Raffles College of Design and Commerce, all offer fashion design courses.

There are many universities that offer fashion design throughout the United States, usually within the context of a general liberal arts degree. The major concentration incorporating fashion design may have alternative names like Apparel and Textiles or Apparel and Textile Design, and may be housed in departments such as Art and Art History, or Family and Consumer Studies. Some schools, such as Parsons, offer a major in Fashion Management, combining fashion education with business courses.

CONCLUSION - Fashion and identity are inseparable companions. Fashion with all its symbolism and attributes form an outstanding base for personal and cultural identification. Identity is a necessary process of a healthy personality as it is a part of self-realization of a person that is so much required for finding a place in life of every person. Fashion has become a tool for achieving harmony with the inner world and a way of revealing or concealing peculiarities. Fashion possesses a specific meaning and the more diverse is the society around us the more fashion-trend will appear and surprise us. As long as it does not hurt people around fashion symbols are acceptable, nevertheless while thinking about fashion and identity it is necessary to remember the ethical side of the issue. Fashion and identity through it still remains a twofold issue but there are a lot of positive aspects one can enjoy and share with other people.

REFERENCES –
  1. http://www.custom-essays.org/samples/Fashion_and_Identity.html
  2. http://www.textileworld.com/Issues/2015/_2014/Fiber_World/Man-Made_Fibers_Continue_To_Grow
  3. http://study.com/articles/Apparel_Designer_Career_Information_for_Becoming_a_Fashion_and_Apparel_Designer.html
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fashion_design
  5. https://www.google.co.in/search

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